|Dr David Livingstone|
Author(s): Harry H. Johnston
Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 5 (May, 1913), pp. 423-446
Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute ofBritish Geographers)
His last seven years of Afriean exploration were somewhat meagrely assisted by a grant of £500 from the Boyal Geographical Society and a grant of £500 from the Foreign Office. He was allowed to retain the title of Consul, but accorded no pay, and further warned that he must expect no pension. He might have been unable to continue his work at all-the work for which he was so clearly cut out-had it not been for the private generosity of Mr. James Young, the great chemist of Glasgow, William Webb of Newstead Abbey, and, perhaps, one should add, Mr. John Murray the publisher. Livingstone-few of us seem to realize-had himself borne a considerable share of t he expense of this six years' government expedition to Zambezia. He had spent ?6000 of his own money on the Lady Nyasa, a steamer specially designed for him. Gathering together, therefore, such funds as he could set aside from the provision he had made for the education and maintenance of his four children, and combining with this the money subscribed by private friends and public bodies, he embarked in 1866 on his self-imposed mission of inquiry into the hydrography of Central Africa.
When resting at Linyanti on the Chobe river in 1855, he had heard from an intelligent Arab of Zanzibar, who had just reached that place overland from the east coast, of Lake Tanganyika and the great river Lualaba of Central Africa. He was at that time puzzled by the contradictory Portuguese and Arab stories of the Chambezi, which on account of the similarity of name was declared by armchair geogra/phers to be the real Zambezi and the head stream of the Kafue. In 1864 he asked himself to what system belonged this mysterious Lake Shuia or Bemba (which he afterwards called Bangweulu) ? To that of the Zambezi ? If not, to what other? He realized in 1855 that the Kasai, which he had discovered in South Congoland, must be a very important affiuent of the Congo, if not a main stream of that system. But he evidently did not conceive it possible till near the time of his death, that the Congo basin could extend so far as it does to the south-east and be fed by the Chambezi and the Lualaba. In his mind there could only be one alternative to the Zambezi as the recipient of these reported lakes and rivers of the Bemba country ; and that was the Nile.
The animosity between Burton and Speke, the pardonable vanity as an explorer of Sir Samuel Baker, and other factors, had induced in the 'sixties of the last century very incorrect ideas about the ultimate sources of the Nile. The 'Victoria Nyanza had been split up into a number of separate lakelets or swamps, and the size and length of the Albert Nyanza exaggerated to an extraordinary degree. With regard to this last factor, we now know that Sir Samuel Baker's speculations were not so entirely unjustifiable. His gaze had penetrated south sufficiently far to have realized the general outlines of the Semliki valley. He was deceived by the blue slopes of Kuwenzori on the east and the lofty plateaus of Mboka and Bukonjo on the west of the Semliki, into imagining that the Albert lake * had an indefinite extension towards the south between vast mountain walls. In fact, if he could have seen a little farther or have heard stories of Lakes Edward and Kivu, he might have been still more positive on this score.f Then again, neither Burton nor Speke had properly examined the north end of Lake Tanganyika to ascertain whether water flowed out of it or into it. The rumoured Kusizi river might be an effluent, and Tanganyika be the farthest southern source of the Nile waters. Or Tanganyika might feed the Great River which since 1855 Livingstone knew to be dimly rumoured to emerge from a cluster of lakes and flow northward through the heart of Central Africa. Or it might be a locked basin independent of the Nile system; in which case the "Luapura" would prove to be the upper Albertine Nile.#
Let us briefly consider his achievements as a geographical discoverer. He directly inspired the search for Lake Ngami, and was the main agent in carrying South Afriean exploration beyond the arid plateaus of Bechuanaland and the Kalahari desert into what is really the Zambezi basin. Oswell and Murray contributed to the cost of his journeys, but he by his influence found the guides and secured the friendship or the neutrality of the native chiefs. He acted as interpreter-in-chief, and, thanks to the mastery he had acquired over the Sechuana language, was able to converse fully and freely with the natives of South-Central Africa. He also picked up a considerable knowledge of other dialects. He served diligently and skilfully as physician and surgeon all who were connected with these journeys. But his own predilections were for botany, zoology, and the study of man. It was the impression that native reports of his character had made on Sebituane, the Makololo conqueror of the upper Zambezi, and the resultant protection afforded, which made it so easy for Livingstone and Oswell to reach the Chobe river and the upper Zambezi in 1851.
Between 1852 and 1856, Livingstone traced the main course of the Zambezi from its confluence with the Chobe northwards to near the sources of the Liba, and from this point west wards he was the first scientific geographer to lay down correctly the position of the upper Kasai and Kwango affluents of the Congo.
Livingstone may be quoted as the discoverer of the great Kasai (perhaps the principal among the Congo affluents for volume and for extent of drainage area). At first it would seem probable that the Pombeiros, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, must have crossed the Kasai in order to reach the court of the Mwata Yanvo. But they appear to have deflected their route southwards, after leaving the upper Kwango, so that they passed round the sources of the Kasai, leaving them to the north. Ladislaus Magyar, the Hungarian explorer and trader (who married a negress of Bihe and travelled over Angola between 1849 and 1864), penetrated about 1851 to the upper Kwango and the north-west limits of the Zambezi basin, and may have seen the infant Kasai in 1855, a few months before or after Livingstone passed by. But he did not communicate the information to the world until after Livingstone's journey, and never, I think, specifically mentioned the Kasai, at any rate, before the publication of Livingstone's book. Moreover, he was no trained geographer or taker of observations for fixing points of latitude and longitude. Silva Porto, a Portuguese trader of Bihe, reached the upper Zambezi and South Congoland in the fifties and sixties, but his wanderings resulted in no additions to the map of Africa.
It is, indeed, remarkable what Livingstone's predecessors missed rather than what they found. Dr. Lacerda reached to little Lake Mofwe, an isolated lagoon about 20 miles south of Mweru and a short distance east of the Luapula. Yet apparently neither he nor any member of his expedition, before or after his death, had the curiosity to penetrate northwards one day's journey and discover Lake Mweru, or visit the banks of the Luapula. Going through the Bisa country they heard of a lake?" Lake Chuia," or Shuia, a short distance to the westward, and knew that the Chambezi flowed into it. This was Livingstone's Bangweulu* (named, as he tells us, from one of its islands). But the Portuguese of Lacerda's mission, like those of the Monteiro-Gamitto expedition of 1831-2, made no effort to locate Bangweulu and place it definitely on the map. Lake Nyasa was heard of (as "Nyanja ") by the Portuguese of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth ; but it was not till 1846 that its waters-so far as historical records go-were actually seen by a Portuguese (Candido de Costa Cardoso). Gasparo de Bocarro passed near to Lake Nyasa in 1616 on his way to Kilwa and Mombasa, but seems to have crossed Lake Malombe or the upper Shire only, and not actually to have seen Lake Nyasa.
Returning from Angola to the Chobe river, he discovered the Victoria falls, and followed the Zambezi more or less closely down to its delta, emerging on the sea-coast at Quelimane.
On his third great African journey he renewed previous explorations in the direction of the Buvuma, and traced a good deal of the course of that East African river. He was practically the first European to explore West Nyasaland and the northern Bemba or Awemba country; he discovered the south end of Tanganyika, and made a shrewd guess at its outlet through the Rukuga (which river he styled the Longumba). He first revealed the great Mweru swamp or Chisera. ["Elephants, buffaloes, and zebras grazed in large numbers on the long sloping banks of a river or marsh called Chisera." This considerable extent of alternate swamps or shallow water was afterwards re-discovered by Sir Alfred Sharpc.] Livingstone made known to us lakes Mworu and Bangweulu and the connecting Luapula river, and the course of the great Lualaba or upper Congo at Nyangwe. He also recorded the existence of the upper Lualaba or Kamolondo.* He was the first European to penetrate as far north as S. lat. 3? 30' near the Elila river, and describe the Manyuemaj forests with the large chimpanzis and pygmy elephants found in them. He mentions for the first time the Lomami river, and is the first explorer to hear of the country of Katanga, its mineral wealth and its?as yet?unexplored, inhabited caverns of vast size. ;i A month to the westward of Kazembe's country lies Katanga, where the people smelt copper ore (malachite) into large ingots shaped like the capital letter I, weighing from fifty to a hundred pounds. The natives draw the copper into wire for armlets and leglets. Gold is also found at Katanga." Livingstone was the first writer to mention the possible existence of Lake Kivu ; of Kavirondo gulf (Victoria Nyanza); and of Lake Naivasha: from Arab information, of course.
He was the first to record the existence of drilled stones in the country to the south-west of Tanganyika, which seemed to be evidence of the existence of a people of ancient Bushmen culture in that direction,# and his remarks generally on the Stone Age in Africa, on the possible existence of undiscovered ancient types of mammals and of mammalian fossils, all show an enlightenment in speculative scientific imagination greatly in advance of his times. He was also in all probability the first writer since the Portuguese chroniclers of the sixteenth century to allude to the remarkable ruins of stone-built forts, villages, and cities in South-East Africa. He derived his information from natives, and perhaps also from Boer hunters. He also mentions the coins found in excavating the shore of Zanzibar island, with Kufic inscriptions, and perhaps dating back to the ninth or tenth century a.d. (Sir John Kirk confirms this statement, and adds that some of these coins were of Harun-ar-rashid's reign, and bore the name of his viziers, Yahya or Fadl.)
The physical appearance of so many of the Bantu tribes between Lunda on the south-west and Manyuema, Bambare and Buguha on the north-east, constantly suggested to Livingstone's mincl the idea of an immigration of Egyptians into Central Africa. Had he lived to penetrate to the countries north of Tanganyika to see the Hima or Tusi aristocracy on the highlands of Equatorial Africa, he would have been still more convinced of the ancient inflow of Egyptian influence into these regions: though it is a theory which it is very unsafe to pursue on the scanty evidence we possess at the present time.
When travelling from Tanganyika to Mweru in 1869, he remarks on the appearance of the chief and people of Itawa. " Nsama, the chief, was an old man with head and face like those sculptured on the Assyrian monuments. . . . His people were particularly handsome, many of the Itawa men with as beautiful heads as one could find in an assembly of Europeans. Their bodies were well shaped, with small hands and feet-none of the West Coast ugliness?no prognathous jaws or lark heels."
There is another entry in his journal derived from Arab information which bears on this theory of the Hamitic permeation of Negro Africa.
"The royal house of Merere of the Basango" (north-east Nyasaland) " is said to have been founded by a light-coloured" (Hamitic ?) "adventurer, who arrived in the country with six companions of the same race. Their for a long time had straight noses, pale skins, and long hair."
His journeys into southern Congoland threw a very interesting light on a native kingdom made famous by the earlier Portuguese explorations-that of the Kazembe of Lunda, whose capital was between Lakes Mweru and Bangweulu.
In the early seventeenth century a great negro empire had arisen in southern Congoland, partly due, no doubt, to the arms and trade goods derived from the Portuguese, but partly also to the after-effects of the Sudanese civilization of Central Congoland under the Bushongo dynasty. This Empire of Lunda ruled over all the south of Congoland and a small part of northern Zambezia.
In the early eighteenth century a member of the family of the Lunda emperor, or " Mwata Yanvo," moved to the south of Lake Mweru and founded a feudatory kingdom there. He received the title of Kazembe, or " lieutenant."
Kazembe sat before his hut on a square seat placed on lion and leopard skins. " He was clothed in white Manchester print and a red baize petticoat so as to look like a crinoline put on wrong side foremost. His arms, legs, and head were covered with ornaments, and a cap made of various coloured beads in neat patterns. A crown of yellow feathers surmounted his cap. His head men came forward, shaded by a huge ill-made umbrella and followed by dependents ..." This Central Afriean monarch (whose descendant was finally deposed for cruelties by the British Government) bore an evil reputation; yet he was a good friend to Livingstone and put no obstacle in his path ; though he politely told him that lakes and rivers only oonsisted of water, and that to ascertain this fact by ocular inspection would not repay him for his fatigues and outlay in trade goods!
Livingstone from boyhood had taken a great interest in botany and in the appearance of trees and flowers in the landscape. His observant glance led him to note all the more salient features of the Afriean flora from the Cape to the equatorial forests of Manyuema. His books are full of little word-pictures of the strange, sfcately or beautiful trees and plants he encounters. He records in his journal the spectacle of the Crinum "lilies" of the Luangwa valley, which in the first rains " flower so profusely that they almost mask the rich, dark, red colour of the loamy soil, and form a covering of pure white where the land has been cleared by the hoe." The weird stone- or pebble-like Mesembryanthemums of the Kalahari Desert, and the gouty, leafless geraniums and vividly coloured pumpkins and gourds of the same region arrest his attention ; the Bauhinia bushes with their golden or bluish tinted, bifid leaves, and the scale insects on them exuding a sweet manna; the noble giraffe-acacia trees, the euphorbias of very diverse modes of growth, the Strophanthus creepers whose seeds possess medicinal or violently poisonous qualities, the borassus and hyphasne fan-palms, the wild date, and the " noble raphias," the pandanus and dracasnas of the Zambezi delta or of inner Congoland, the innumerable forest trees of northern Zambezia and southern Congoland : all are illustrated in his pages by well-chosen words and sometimes explanatory drawings; and most are correctly named, in contrast with the very unscientific nomenclature of the generality of travellers in his day.
Livingstone notices as he descends the slopes of the mountains towards the Chambezi the abundance of the fig-tree which yields the bark-cloth, so that the natives cared little for the cotton cloths of Europe and India. He also in this region observed green mushrooms, which, on being peeled, revealed a pink fleshy inside (the Visimba of the natives). Only one or two of these mushrooms were put into a wooden mortar to flavour other and much larger kinds, the whole being pounded up into a savoury mess, which was then cooked and eaten. But in Livingstone's experienee this mushroom diet "only produced dreams of the by-gone days, so that the saliva ran from the mouth in these dreams and wetted the pillow.', The country on the Chambezi slope of these Muchinga mountains was devoid of game, the game having been killed out by far-reaching and longcontinued drives through the hopo fences into pitfalls.
He crossed Tanganyika to resume his search for the Lualaba in July, 1869. In his journal he recorded the abundance of pandanus screw pines off the west coast of that lake. As he travelled through the Guha and Manyuema countries he entered "the land of grey parrots with red tails" [" to play with grey parrots was the great amusement of the Manyuema people"]. The Manyuema country he describes as "surprisingly beautiful, palms crowning the highest heights of the mountains, and climbers of cable size in great numbers hanging among the gigantic trees." Strange birds and monkeys were every where to be seen. The women went innocently naked; and the Adams of this Eden wore nothing but a small piece of bark cloth. Both sexes atoned for their absence of clothing by having their bodies tattooed with full moons, stars, crocodiles, "and devices recalling Egyptian hieroglyphics." Yet although their country-prior to the Arab raids-seemed an earthly paradise, smallpox came every three or four years to Manyuemaland and killed many of the people.
It was in the Manyuema country that he came into contact with the large chimpanzi (Troglodytes schweinfurthf) of eastern equatorial Africa, whose range extends from the Welle-Mubangi river and Unyoro to the eastern bend of the upper Congo and the west coast of Tanganyika.
The Soko, as he called this large chimpanzi, always tried to bite off the ends of the fingers and toes of the men with whom it fought, not otherwise doing them any harm. It made nests, which Livingstone described as poor contrivances with no architectural skill.
The Manyuema told him, however, that the flesh of the soko was delicious; and Livingstone thinks that through devouring this ape they may have been led into cannibalism. The sokos gave tongue like foxhounds; this was their nearest approach to speech. They also laughed when in play, and in their relations with the natives were quite as often playful as ill tempered. The lion, which seemingly existed in the Manyuema country in spite of the forest, was said to attack and kill the soko, but never to eat him. The sokos lived in monogamous communities of about ten. Intruders from other camps were beaten off with fists and loud yells. If one tried to seize the female of another, the remainder of the party united to box and bite him. The male often carried his child, relieving the mother occasionally of her burden.
Rhinoceroses were shot in the Manyuema country. He also alludes to the pygmy elephant of Congoland, " a small variety, only 5 feet 8 inches high at the withers, yet with tusks 6 feet 8 inches in length;" and notes the killing of an elephant with three tusks, one of them growing out through the base of the trunk.
[The pygmy elephant (Elephas africanus pumilus) of the equatorial Kamerun-Congo forests, was only rediscovered in the early part of the twentieth century.]
Livingstone was almost an expert in geology and petrology. He felt the keenest interest in the records of the rocks, and fully realized the importance of palaeo-botany. When descending the valley of the Central Zambezi in 1856 he discovered fossil remains of Araucaria, or of conifers now confined to South America and Australasia; and fully realized what his discovery meant in regard to ancient land connections between South Africa, India, and South America. He was much impressed with the probable coal-bearing strata of sandstone throughout the Euvuma valley. A great many pieces or blocks of silicified wood appeared on the surface of the soil at the bottom of the slope up the plateaus. " This " (he wrote) " in Africa is a sure indication of the presence of coal beneath." In the sands of some of the rivers pieces of coal were quite common. He originated the theory of the rift valley of Lake Nyasa. "It looks as though a sudden rent had been made so as to form the lake and tilt all these rocks nearly over" (namely, in the direction of Ruvuma). His observations would seem to show that the level of Lake Nyasa was once about 55 feet above its present high-water mark. It is possible that at this high level its overflow of waters first of all passed into the basin of Lake Chilwa, and then flowed northwards into the Ruvuma system.
Here follow a few word-pictures of Central Afriean scenery selected from his Journals : On January 9, 1867, he had ascended a hardened sandstone range (of what have since been called the Sharpe mountains), with very beautiful valleys having the appearance of well-kept English parks ; but they were in fact full of water to overflowing, immense sponges, covered with close, short, green turf. Then followed a march through mountains which he describes as being of delicately-tinted pink and white dolomite. In the ravines there were noble Eaphia palms. He ascended this northern part of the dividing range between the Zambezi system and the Chambezi, till he reached a height of about 538? feet above sea-level, the mountains further rising above that to nearly 7000 feet.
He thus describes the south end of lake Tanganyika in the western part of Ulungu. " From altitudes of nearly 6000 feet above sea-level one descends 2000 feet to the lake shores, and still the surface of the waters is upwards of 2500 feet above sea level. The sides of its basin are very steep, sometimes the rocks run a sheer 2000 feet down to the water. Nowhere is there 3 miles of level land from the foot of the cliffs to the shore. Top, sides, and bottom of this tableland are covered with well-grown forest and rich grass, except where the bare rocks protrude. The scenery is extremely beautiful."
"The Aisi, a stream of 15 yards broad, and thigh-deep, came down alongside our precipitous path, forming cascades by leaping 800 feet at a time. The bright red of the schists among the green sward made the dullest of my attendants patise and remark with wonder. Antelopes, buffaloes, and elephants abound on the steep slopes, and hippopotami, crocodiles, and fish swarm in the water. One elephant got out of our way to a comparatively level spot, and then stood and roared at us. . . . The first village we came to on the banks of the lake had a grove of oil palms and other trees around it . . . not the dwarf species seen on Lake Nyasa, but one with fruit quite as large as those on the west coast. After being a fortnight at this lake (Tanganyika) it still appears one of surpassing loveliness. Its peacefulness is remarkable, though at times it is said to be lashed up by storms. It lies in a deep basin, whose sides are nearly perpendicular, but covered well with trees; the rocks which appear are bright-red argillaceous schist; the trees at present all green; down some of these rocks come beautiful cascades, and buffaloes, elephants, and antelopes wander and graze on the more level spots; while lions roar all night. The level place below is not 2 miles from the perpendicular heights. The village (Pambete), at which we first touched the lake, is surrounded by oil-palm trees?not the stunted ones of Lake Nyasa, but the real West Coast oil-palm tree, requiring two men to carry a bunch of the ripe fruit. In the morning and evening huge crocodiles may be observed quietly making their way to their feeding-grounds; hippopotami snort by night and at early morning."
This is how he describes the route and the way of travel with the Arabs from Tanganyika to Mweru through the Itawa country.
"The valleys along which we travelled at the base of a range of low granite mountains were beautiful with their green grass and their clumps of trees of a great variety of form, creating that park-like scenery so characteristic of tropical Africa. The loug line of slaves and carriers brought up by their Arab employers added life to the scene. The great caravan went in three bodies and numbered four hundred and fifty persons in all, each body had a guide and a flag, and when that was planted all the company of this section stopped till it was lifted and a drum was beaten and a kudu's horn sounded. Each of the three parties was headed by about a dozen leaders, or wenyi-para, dressed with a fantastic head-gear of feathers and beads, red cloth on their bodies, and skins cut into strips and twisted. These took their places in line, the drum beat, the horn sounded harshly, and all fell iu to resume the march. The female slaves walked bravely along carrying loads on their heads, but the actual wives of the Arabs were usually covered with a fine white shawl and wore ornaments of gold and silver on their hieads, and many pounds' weight of fine copper leglets above the ankles. As soon as the slaves and wives arrived at the camping-place they began to cook, showing in this art a great deal of expertness, and making savoury dishes for their masters out of wild fruits and quite unlikely materials."
On March 29,1871, he reached the outlying villages of Nyangwe, on the upper Congo. The country even at that date was open and dotted with trees, chiefly a species of Bauhinia that resists the annual grass-burnings. There were many Manyuema villages, each with a host of pigs. The altitudes seemed to be about 2000 feet above sea-level. The upper Congo or main Lualaba was narrower here than higher up its course in the south, but still a mighty river, at least 3000 yards broad, always deep, and quite impossible to ford. The current was about 2 miles an hour flowing north. The pigs at this place must have an interesting history as regards their origin. They could not have been brought thither by the Arabs on account of Muhammadan prejudice. They could not have come from the north, because the domestic pig of the Sus scrofa type is absolutely unknown in the interior of Equatorial Africa. They must have reached the Lualaba through the Kua countries, which in turn received them from Lunda, and that empire from Angola and the Portuguese. From the same direction, perhaps, had come the Brazilian musk-ducks which Livingstone found in such abundance on the islands off the west coast of Tanganyika. The pine-apple also was just penetrating these Congo forest countries from the Atlantic seaboard.
These few excerpts are typical of all Livingstone's published works. But the irony of his fate is this. There are indications in Livingstone's last journals and in the preface to these which was written by the late Rev. Horace Waller, that he compiled a good deal of scientific material dealing with native languages and ethnology, possibly with botany and zoology, and this has never seen the light. We know Livingstone deposited in the Grey Library at Capetown all his earlier linguistic researches, where apparently they still remain at the present day, having found there a tomb. But what happened to the scientific material which the Pev. Horace Waller thought "unsuited to the reading of the general public" - My own inquiries in this respect have been fruitless; but perhaps this mention of the loss which the study of Africa has sustained by the non-publication of some of Livingstone's researches may arouse some one to search for, find, and publish what may prove to be (from a scientific point of view) the best of Livingstone's work.
This great explorer started on his earliest African journeys with a sound constitution; but the first shock to his system was the crunching of his left arm by the lion at Mabotsa. He did not, however, suffer much from malarial fever till he reached the upper Zambezi in Barotseland in 1854. The journey thence through South-west Congoland during the rainy season brought on severe attacks of dysentery, and these alternating with malarial fever and rheumatism followed all through Angola, so that he was seldom well for a week until he regained the bracing climate of South Africa at Linyanti in 1855. His rest at this place restored him to comparative health, a cure made more complete by the sea voyage home.
The six years spent in the exploration of Zambezia, Nyasaland, and the Ruvuma were marked by severe attacks of black water fever (as we now know it to have been) and by exhausting dysentery. He never quite regained his old strength and resiliency after that; even though he spent two years(1864-0)in England and Scotland. Moreover, during this time he had no tonic from the consciousness of success, and no complete freedom from monetary anxieties on behalf of his children's and his own future. He was in semi-disgrace, still holding a vague commission as a consul without a consulate, a salary, or any prospects of a pension. He would indeed have been in desperate straits had it not been for the previous and continuing generosity of his publisher and the faithfulness of his friends, William Webb and James Young. Such as these, not forgetting Oswell,would have combined to place him quite beyond the reach of monetary embarrassments had he not been too proud of his independence to accept such help. But, at any rate, they subscribed towards his last great expedition in search of the Nile sources.
When the early summer of 1866 found him once more on African soil free from all entanglements, free to search as he pleased and where he pleased for the mysterious lakes and rivers of innermost Central Africa, his sense of elation long prevailed to counter-balance disappointments from a badly-selected staff of India sepoys. Extracts like the following appear in his journal as he approaches Lake Nyasa from the east:?
" The mere animal pleasure of travelling in a wild unexplored country is very great. When on lands of a couple of thousand feet elevation, brisk exercises gives health, circulates the blood, and the mind works well; the eye is clear, the step is firm, and a day's exercise always makes the evening's repose thoroughly enjoyable."
From this time onward entries like the following are of frequent occurrence in his journal:-
"I am excessively weak-cannot walk without tottering, and have constant singing in the head, but the Highest will lead me further."
On the 22nd of December, 1867, Livingstone (who wrote in his journal at that time " I am always ill when not working "), having left Kazembe's court in the terrible rains at the height of the rainy season, says of himself;
"Every step I take jars in the chest, and in my very weak state I can scarcely keep up the march, though formerly I was always first, and had to keep in my pace. ... I had a loud singing in the ears, and could scarcely hear the tick of the chronometers."
"After I had been a few days here (near Bangweulu), I had a fit of insensibility, which shows the power of fever without medicine. I found myself floundering outside my hut, and unable to get in. I tried to lift myself from my back by laying hold of two posts at the entrance, but when I got nearly upright I let them go, and fell back heavily on my head on a box. The boys had seen the wretched state I was in, and hung a blanket at the entrance of the hut, that no stranger might see my helplessness; some hours elapsed before I could recognize where I was."
During the winter or rainy season of 1868-9 Livingstone was very ill. He had been wet, times with out number, and suffered from terrible pains in the chest and pneumonia. He was often semi-delirious and subject to delusions, such as that the bark of the trees was covered with figures and faces of men. He thought often of his children and friends, and his thoughts seemed almost to conjure them up before him. For the first time in his life he was being carried, and could not raise himself to a sitting position. The Arabs were very kind to him in his extreme weakness, but the vertical sun, blistering any part of the skin exposed to it, tried him sorely in the day marches. He also extracted twenty maggots from his emaciated body, due to a species of stinging fly, which inserts its eggs into the puncture. As the grubs grew they formed exceedingly painful pimples on his legs. In July, 1870, his feet were almost consumed with irritable, eating ulcers, pulsating with pain and constantly discharging matter. These sores were obviously communicated by mosquitoes from the blood of the wretched slaves, who were tortured with them. Livingstone could fall asleep when he wished, at the shortest notice. A mat, and a shady tree under which to spread it, would at any time afford him a refreshing sleep. But in his last years of travel sleep was often made sad by the realistic dreams of happy English life from which he wakened, to find himself ill and consumed with anxiety that he might not live to complete his mission.
After 1869 he suffered much from the results of the decay and loss of his molar teeth, so that imperfect mastication of rough African food induced severe dyspepsia, and his bodily strength weakened under a condition of permanent mal-nutrition. Stanley, by relieving him when he did, gave him at least two more years of life, a certain measure of happiness, and the sweet consolation that he was not forgotten, and that the magnitude of his discoveries was appreciated. In this brief sunset glow of his life he turned his face once more towards Lake Bangweulu in order to trace the course of the Luapula to Mweru, and its junction with the Lualaba, half hoping that he might then travel down the broad stream till he entered the Bahr-al-Ghazal or the Albert Nyanza; but, although he now possessed comforts he had long lacked, and faithful, comparatively disciplined men, his strength gave out under constant exposure to rain, and to soakings in crossing rivers and marshes. Severe haemorrhage set in from the bowels, and he died of exhaustion at Chitambo's village in the swamps near the south shore of Bangweulu on May 1, 1873.
"In this journey I have endeavoured to follow with unswerving fidelity the line of duty . . . All the hardship, hunger and toil were met with the full conviction that I was right in persevering to make a complete work of the exploration of the sources of the Nile."
The President : One of our Fellows present here to-night is Sir Alfred Sharpe, whose name has been more than once mentioned by the reader of the paper. Though now retired from the service, Sir Alfred's name is known to every one of you as the able and indefatigable administrator of that possession of ours of Nyasaland, which Livingstone was one of the first to explore, and which has been held up to us to-night by Sir
Sir Alfeed Sharpe : In the interesting paper to which we have listened to-night Sir Harry Johnston has referred several times to the Protectorate of Nyasaland. He has very modestly said nothing about what he did himself there in the suppression of the slave trade. I do not propose to tell you all he did, but can assure you that he took a very active part, and was not satisfied until he had either driven out the slave-trading Arabs, or else brought them under subjection to British rule, and he had a very hard job to do it. The Shire highlands of Nyasaland, as Sir Harry Johnston has mentioned, were the district of Africa which Livingstone specially indicated as being in his opinion suitable for missionary effort and for colonization, and what has struck me and everybody else who has travelled in Africa (as Sir Harry Johnston has also mentioned), is the great accuracy of all information which Livingstone gave, and of the opinions which he formed of the countries through which he travelled. Certainly in the case of Nyasaland he was quite right. I succeeded Sir Harry Johnston in the administration of Nyasaland, and was there for many years, and had very ample opportunities of observmg the development of what we may call "Livingstone's schemes." As you know, the first steps taken for the development of Nyasaland were by the various mission societies, and the greatest success has attended that excellent work. Their work was also followed and supplemented by the settlement of British colonists, who are now developing the resources of the country to their own profit and to the good of the Empire. Where Livingstone found native wars and consequent slave raids, are now numerous flourishing plantations of cotton, tobacco, tea, coffee, etc, prosperous British planters, good roads, and, I am glad to say, a railway, which I hope before long will be extended up to Lake Nyasa and down to the sea-coast. There could be no better testimony to the great value of Livingstone's life work than the present condition of Nyasaland, and especially the condition of the natives who live there, I have just returned from a journey through.........